Certificates and LicensesIn some fields, professional certification and licensing are synomous, in others they are not. Before choosing one or the other you’ll want to thoroughly research your specific field, in the region you plan on working to determine which you’ll need, a certificate or a license. The best way to determine which is required is to contact the local regulatory agency for your field and/or professional association (i.e. California Board of Nursing, Colorado Psychology Examiners, etc.).
Unlike degrees which typically include a general education component, certificates and licenses are designed to help students develop a specific skill set that will prepare them for a particular job or to perform a specific function. Ceritifcates and licenses typically take one to two years to complete. They can be earned at community colleges and technical and vocational schools. Several four-year colleges also offer certificate programs.
Undergraduate DegreesUnderstanding exactly what an undergraduate degree is can get a bit confusing. Simply put, undergraduate degrees you earn after a high school diploma or GED and before a master’s or doctorate Degree. Undergraduate degrees are sometimes referred to as post-secondary degrees. Undergraduate programs typically include a component of general education and provide a basic educational foundation in a particular field of study. Programs typically include general education courses, electives, and core courses. General education course are usually required for every student pursuing a degree, irregardless of their chosen field of study. General education may include subjects such as math, history, and English. Core courses are specific to the field of study a student has chosen to pursue. For example, a psychology program may have core classes in behavioral science, general psychology, counseling and human development.
There are two general types of undergraduate degrees, Associate’s Degrees and Bachelor’s Degrees. Associate’s Degrees earned at a community college with the intent of transfering to an accredited four-year institutions are sometimes referred to Transfer Degrees.
Transfer DegreeIf you plan on completing your first two years of college at a community college and then transfering to a four-year college or university, you’ll want to enrolled in a program that allows you to earn one of the degrees listed below.
- A.A. – Associate of Arts
- A.A.T. – Associate of Arts in Teaching
- A.E.S. – Associate of Engineering Science
- A.F.A. – Associate of Fine Arts
- A.S. – Associate of Science
The associates degrees listed above, when earned from an accredited institution, generally will fulfill general education requirements as well as many of the introductory course requirements for the major a student intends to pursue at a four-year college. When considering attending a community college or any 2-year undergraduate program, discuss your choices with a college advisor at your current school or an enrollment office at the four-year college you plan on attending down the road.
Associate’s DegreeAssociate’s degrees are undergraduate degrees that typically take two years to complete. They’re offered at community colleges, vocational colleges, technical schools and some four-year colleges also offer associate’s degrees. Credits earned through an associate’s degree program often cost less than those earned at a four-year college and are usually transferable to a four-year college if earned at a community college or vocational school that is regionally accredited.
The most traditional associate’s degrees are the Associate of Arts (A.A.) and Associate of Science (A.S.), but there are several types of associate’s degrees including the Associate of Applied Science (A.A.S.), which is designed to prepare students for a particular career path. Most traditional programs consist of three parts: general education requirements, major requirements, and electives.
Bachelor’s DegreeA bachelor’s degree is an undergraduate degree offered at four-year colleges and universities. They typically take four, sometimes five, years to complete. Bachelor’s degrees are the most commonly sought undergraduate degrees as they are the degree of choice among employers looking to fill entry-level positions and are required for entry to most graduate programs.
The bachelors degree requires that students complete several general education core courses, such as English, math, science, humanities, communications, and social sciences. Students entering a bachelor’s degree program having already complete an associate’s degree may be exempt from taking several, if not all, of the required general education courses. In addition, students pursuing a bachelor’s degree are also required to select a “major”, a main subject area or field of academic focus.
There are several different types of bachelor’s degrees, the two primary being the Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) and Bachelor of Science (B.S.). B.A. degrees typically focus in the humanities and social science fields. B.S. degrees usually focus on scientific and technical fields. Other bachelor’s degrees include the Bachelor of Fine Arts (B.F.A.) or the Bachelor of Business Administration (B.B.A.), to name just a couple.
Not only is the bachelor’s degree the degree of choice among employers looking to fill entry-level positions but students who want to pursue a graduate or professional degree must first earn a bachelor’s degree. Graduate degrees, including master’s degrees and doctoral degrees (i.e. Ph.D., Psyd, M.Ed., etc.) are now required for entry into an increasing number of career fields, including psychology, medicine, law and education.
Graduate DegreesGraduate degrees are advanced programs of academic and professional study that focus on a particular discipline or profession (i.e. Law, Medicine, Psychology, Business, etc.) In the past, graduate programs were primarily “academic” (research and education oriented), but today many, if not most, are “professional” (skills development and knowledge oriented) in nature. Many are a combination of both. Graduate degrees can take anywhere from two to six years to complete.
How is a Graduate Degree Different from an Undergraduate Degree?In relation to an undergraduate degree, graduate degrees are much more focused on a particular discipline and offer a much more indepth education. In addition, there is a much higher expectation regarding the quantity and quality of students’ academic work. Other distinguishing characteristics of graduate programs include:
- fast paced and demanding
- studies focused around core discipine with few electives
- higher standard of require work and performance
- smaller class size with more interaction between students and teachers
- more hands-on and clinical experience
- work experience via teaching, internships, fellowships, or research
- original work and research often required
- higher level of competition between students
Master’s DegreeA master’s degree is a post-secondary or graduate degree students often pursue following a bachelor’s degree. Even those a master’s degree is much more rigorous and demanding than a bachelor’s degree, they can usually be completed in just two years of full-time study. The majority of master’s degrees involve intricate analysis and/or extensive research. The most common reasons that students pursue a master’s degree include the following:
- meet job requirements
- better qualify for career advancement opportunities
- further knowledge and skillsets
- set themselves apart from other professionals
- increase earning potential
Doctorate DegreeA doctoral degree is an advanced graduate degree that typically follows a bachelor’s or master’s degree. In many fields, a doctoral degree is considered a “terminal degree”, the highest academic degree in a given field of study. Unlike bachelor’s and master’s degrees that can be completed on a part-time basis, doctoral degrees are work-intensive and usually require a students full-time attention (i.e. 40 to 60 hours a week of studying). Most doctoral degrees are research oriented and are earned under the supervision and tutelage of a professor.
While historically doctorate degrees were primarily research oriented and designed to prepare students for careers in research and teaching, they are now required for entry into several professional fields (i.e. psychology, education, medicine, etc.) and many professionals now pursue these degrees in an effort to increase their career advancement opportunities and pay.
Depending on the field of study, a doctoral degree can take anywhere from two to five years to complete, sometimes longer. There are four basic types of doctorate degrees
- Professional Doctorates – The professional doctorate, as the name suggests, is a professional oriented doctorate degree that focuses on a particular profession. These programs typically emphasize skill development and knowledge acquisition. An example of a professional doctorate is the Doctor of Business Administration (DBA).
- Research Doctorates – These doctorate degrees are research oriented doctorates that focus almost exclusively on academic research. Common research doctorates include Ph.D. and Doctor of Philosophy.
- Higher Doctorates – A higher doctorate is a tiered research degree. While not as common in the United States, these degrees are awarded in several countries including France, Great Britain, and Ireland.
- Honorary Doctorates – An honorary doctorate is degree in which the usual requirements have been waived. This degree is typically awarded as a way of honoring or recognizing an individual’s contributions in a specific field, or to society in general. Honorary doctorates are not awarded by all universities that award doctorate degrees.